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Tattoos: The Human Body as a Work of Art

1 A. Deter Wolf, “The Material Culture & Middle Stone

Age Origins of Ancient Tattooing”. In: P. Della Casa

and C. Witt (eds.),

Tattoos and Body Modification in


, Herausgeber Universität Zürich, Zürich 2013:


2 L. Krutak,

The Tattooing Arts of Tribal Women

, Bennett

and Bloom, London, 2007: p. 15.

3 S. Gilbert,

Tattoo: A Source Book

, Juno Books LLC, USA,


4 L. Krutak, “The Power to Cure: A Brief History of

Therapeutic Tattooing”, In: Della Casa and Witt (eds.),

2013 (see note 1, above): pp. 27-34.

5 E. Dissanayake,

Homo Aestheticus: Where Art Comes

From and Why

, Free Press. New York, 1992, 1995: p.11.

6 A. Deter-Wolf, B. Robitaille, L. Krutak and S. Galliot, “The

World’s Oldest Tattoos”,

Journal of Archaeological

Science: Reports

5, 2016: p. 22.


8 See note 6, above, A. Deter-Wolf, B. Robitaille, L. Krutak

and S. Galliot, 2015: p. 22.

9 See note 1, above, Deter Wolf 2013: p. 16.

10 Ibid.

11 L. Barkova and S.V. Pankova, “Tattooed Mummies

from the Large Pazyryk Mounds: New Findings, In:

Archaeology, Ethnography and Anthropology of Eurasia

(2), 2005: pp. 48–59; S.V. Pankova, “One More Culture

with Ancient Tattoo Tradition in Southern Siberia:

Tattoos in Mummy from the Oglakty Buriel Ground,

3rd-4th Century AD”, In: Della Casa and Witt (eds.), 2013

(see note 1, above): p. 75.

12 G.J. Tassie, “Identifying the Practice of Tattooing in

Ancient Egypt and Nubia”,

Papers from the Institute of


, 14 (2003): p. 85.

13 R.S. Bianchi, “Tattoo in Ancient Egypt”, in: A. Rubin (ed.)

Marks of Civilization, Artistic Transformation of the

Human Body

, Museum of Cultural History, University of

California, Los Angeles, 1988: pp. 21-25.

14 D.E. Bar-Yosef Mayer, B. Vandermeersch and O. Bar-

Yosef, “Shells and Ochre in Middle Paleolithic Qafzeh

Cave, Israel: Indications for Modern Behavior”.


of Human Evolution

, 56 (3), 2009: pp. 307–314.

15 Ch.S. Henshilwood, F. d’Errico and Ian Watts, “Engraved

ochres from the Middle Stone Age levels at Blombos

Cave, South Africa”,

Journal of Human Evolution


(2009): pp. 27–47.

16 A.F. Friedman,

The World Atlas of Tattoo

, Yale

University Press, New Haven and London, 2015: p. 214.

17 See note 1, above, Deter-Wolf, 2013: pp. 16-17.

18 Ibid.: p.15.



20 T. Ornan, “Labor pangs: The Revadim plaque type”, In:

S. Bickel, S. Schorer, R. Schurte and Ch. Uehlinger (eds.),

Images as Sources – Studies on Ancient Near Eastern

Artefacts and the Bible Inspired by the Work of Othmar


(OBO Special volume), Fribourg and Göttingen,

2007: pp. 215–235.

21 I. Ziffer, “Western Asiatic Tree Goddesses”,

Egypt and

the Levant

, 20 (2010): pp. 411-430.

22 P. Beck, “A New Type of Female Figurine”. In:

N. Na’aman, U. Zevulun and I. Ziffer (eds.),

Imagery and

Representation – Studies in the Art and Iconography

of Ancient Palastine: Collected Articles Pirhiya Beck


Occasional Publications 3, 2000: pp. 31–32.

23 See note 3, above, Gilbert, 2000.

24 Ibid.: p. 157.

25 See note 16, above, Friedman, 2015: pp. 16-18.

26 L. Krutak, “Embodied symbols of the south seas: Tattoo

in Polynesia”, Retrieved August 30, from

http://www. tattoo-in-polynesia/


27 See note 16, above, Friedman, 2015: pp. 218-219.

28 See note 2, above, Krutak, 2015.

29 M. lewy, “The History of Jerusalemite Tattoo among

European Pilgrims”, Kathedra, 95 (2000): p. 48


30 Ibid.: p. 39.

31 Ibid.: p. 42.

32 Ibid.: pp. 42-49.

33 Ibid.: p. 66.

34 Ibid.: pp. 55-66, for Burchett’s quotation.

35 W.S. Blackman,

The Fellahim of Upper Egypt

, Bombay,

Sydney, George G. Harrap and company LTD London,